Friday, 9 January 2015

Learn Late Cornish Bit by Bit 20 (Verbal particles 4)

Verbal particles 4

We looked at the use of <a> as the verbal particle with the preterite (simple past tense) of many verbs.
It follows the subject of the verb, whether that is a pronoun, such as ev, hei or me, or a noun or name, e.g.

ev a welas                                        he saw
hei a sedhas                                    she sat
me a dheuth                                     I came

It is also used with <vedh> will be/ shall be, the future tense of boas to be. An adjective, noun, occupation, etc. follows the <a vedh>, e.g.

ev a vedh                                          he will be
hei a vedh                                         she will be
me a vedh                                         I will be

We can expand these with appropriate descriptions, e.g.

Ev a vedh da.                                   He will be good.
Hei a vedh teg.                                 She will be beautiful.
Me a vedh coth.                                I shall be old.
Jana a vedh flogh da.                      Jane will be a good child.
Ev a vedh y sira.                              He will be his father.

For a negative statement the verbal particle <a> is replaced by different particle <na>, which then starts the sentence. (Some persons need a slight modification of <vedh>.), e.g.

Na vedh hei teg.                             She will not be beautiful.
Na vedho vy coth.                          I shall not be old.
Na vedh Jana flogh da.                 Jane will not be a good child.
Na vedh ev y sira.                          He will not be his father.

A sentence starting with the verb without any verbal particle is a question[1], though some people do write the verbal particle <a>.

Vedha vy rych?                             Will I be rich?
Vedh ev lel?                                   Will he be faithful?
Vedh hei dama dha?                     Will she be a good mother?

[1] However in Middle Cornish the particle <a> may be written, e.g. A vydh ev lel?

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