Monday, 23 February 2015

Learn Late Cornish Bit by Bit 50 (Kith and Kin)

Kith and Kin

car[1] (m) kerens[2] (pl)                 male relative[3], relation, 
                                                        family member, parent
cares (f) caresow (pl)[4]                female relative, relation, family member
kerens (pl)                                      can also be used for parents
coweth(m) cowetha (pl)                male friend(s)
cowethes (f) cowethesow (pl)     female friend(s)
cothman[5](m) cothmans (pl)      male friend(s)

At Christmas, New Year and other festive occasions we like to meet up with family and friends. So what can we say about them? Here’s some of the vocabulary we used in earlier lessons. Notice that we have had two words for father:

Ev a vedh y sira.                             He will be his father.
…gen sira vy ha pemp den moy   with my father and five more men

An tas ew.                                        It’s the father.
Agan Tas nei eus en Nev…            Our Father that is in Heaven…

Vedh hei dama dha?                     Will she be a good mother?
gans o dama                                   with my mother, by my mother

An den a bernas kei rag y vab.    The man bought a dog for his son.
An maw ma ew o mab.                  This boy is my son.

aga broder                                      their brother
reb hy whor                                    beside her sister

Building on these (note the mutations):
sira[6]                                              a father
an sira                                             the father
üdn sira                                           one father, a particular father
sirys                                                 fathers

tas                                                    a father
an tas                                               the father
üdn tas                                             one father, a particular father
tasow                                                fathers
an dasow[7]                                     the fathers
hendas                                              forefather, ancestor
hendasow                                          forefathers, ancestors
ragdas                                               forefather, ancestor
ragdasow[8]                                      forefathers, ancestors

dama                                                  a mother
an dhama                                           the mother
üdn dhama                                        one mother, a particular mother
damyow                                             mothers
an damyow                                        the mothers

We also have a rather more informal version of mother:
mabm                                                 a mother, a mum
an vabm                                             the mother, etc.
üdn vabm                                           one mum, a particular mum
mabmow                                            mums
an mabmow [9]                                  the mums

mab                                                    a son
an mab                                               the son
üdn mab                                             one son, a particular son
mebyon                                              sons
an vebyon                                          the sons

mergh                                                 a daughter
an vergh                                             the daughter
üdn vergh                                          one daughter, a particular daughter
merhes                                               daughters
an merhes                                          the daughters

broder                                                 a brother
an broder                                            the brother
üdn broder                                          one brother, a particular brother
breder                                                  brothers
an vreder                                             the brothers
whor                                                     a sister
an whor                                                the sister
üdn whor                                             one sister, a particular sister
wheredh                                               sisters
an wheredh                                           the sisters

We can use these words with some of our previous vocabulary, e.g.:
Ma üdn whor dhebm.                            I have one sister.
Thera dew[10] vroder dhebm.              I had two brothers.
Ev a welas y vroder[11]de.                   He saw his brother yesterday.
Wrüg hei gweles hy whor Nos Nadelik?          
                                                            Did she see her sister on Christmas Eve?
Na wrüg hei.                                          She did not.
Bes hei wrüg gweles hy thas[12].       But she did see her father.
O dama a gribas hy fedn[13].              My mother combed her hair (head).

[1] long vowel sound, rather like English [care]
[2] shorter vowels
[3] male plurals are also used for mixed gender groups
[4] note the shift in stress in pronunciation from [KARes] to [karESow]
[5] RLC cuthman (same pronunciation, first vowel is a scwha)
[6] pronounced [zeera]
[7] remember that plurals of masculine people mutate after an
[8] Richard Gendall’s 2000 grammar book is called Tavas a Ragadasow The Language of My Forefathers
[9] remember that plural feminine nouns do not mutate after an the 
[10] dew two causes soft mutation of b>v
[11] soft mutation of b>v after y his
[12] hy her causes spirant mutation of t>th
[13] another spirant mutation after hy her, p>f

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