Kith and Kin
family member, parent
cares (f) caresow (pl) female relative, relation, family member
kerens (pl) can also be used for parents
coweth(m) cowetha (pl) male friend(s)
cowethes (f) cowethesow (pl) female friend(s)
cothman(m) cothmans (pl) male friend(s)
At Christmas, New Year and other festive occasions we like to meet up with family and friends. So what can we say about them? Here’s some of the vocabulary we used in earlier lessons. Notice that we have had two words for father:
Ev a vedh y sira. He will be his father.
…gen sira vy ha pemp den moy with my father and five more men
An tas ew. It’s the father.
Agan Tas nei eus en Nev… Our Father that is in Heaven…
Vedh hei dama dha? Will she be a good mother?
gans o dama with my mother, by my mother
An den a bernas kei rag y vab. The man bought a dog for his son.
An maw ma ew o mab. This boy is my son.
aga broder their brother
reb hy whor beside her sister
Building on these (note the mutations):
sira a father
an sira the father
üdn sira one father, a particular father
tas a father
an tas the father
üdn tas one father, a particular father
an dasow the fathers
hendas forefather, ancestor
hendasow forefathers, ancestors
ragdas forefather, ancestor
ragdasow forefathers, ancestors
dama a mother
an dhama the mother
üdn dhama one mother, a particular mother
an damyow the mothers
We also have a rather more informal version of mother:
mabm a mother, a mum
an vabm the mother, etc.
üdn vabm one mum, a particular mum
an mabmow  the mums
mab a son
an mab the son
üdn mab one son, a particular son
an vebyon the sons
mergh a daughter
an vergh the daughter
üdn vergh one daughter, a particular daughter
an merhes the daughters
broder a brother
an broder the brother
üdn broder one brother, a particular brother
an vreder the brothers
whor a sister
an whor the sister
üdn whor one sister, a particular sister
an wheredh the sisters
We can use these words with some of our previous vocabulary, e.g.:
Ma üdn whor dhebm. I have one sister.
Thera dew vroder dhebm. I had two brothers.
Ev a welas y vroderde. He saw his brother yesterday.
Wrüg hei gweles hy whor Nos Nadelik?
Did she see her sister on Christmas Eve?
Na wrüg hei. She did not.
Bes hei wrüg gweles hy thas. But she did see her father.
O dama a gribas hy fedn. My mother combed her hair (head).
 long vowel sound, rather like English [care]
 shorter vowels
 male plurals are also used for mixed gender groups
 note the shift in stress in pronunciation from [KARes] to [karESow]
 RLC cuthman (same pronunciation, first vowel is a scwha)
 pronounced [zeera]
 remember that plurals of masculine people mutate after an
 Richard Gendall’s 2000 grammar book is called Tavas a Ragadasow The Language of My Forefathers
 remember that plural feminine nouns do not mutate after an the
 dew two causes soft mutation of b>v
 soft mutation of b>v after y his
 hy her causes spirant mutation of t>th
 another spirant mutation after hy her, p>f