Saturday, 12 November 2016

Taking a new look at Cornish grammar 15 (more forms of verbs)

We can add two more tenses for the verbs we have used so far, to give us more ways of talking about the future and the past. The verb gwil or gül (same vowel sound) to do or to make is used as an auxiliary for both.
The 3rd person singular habitual present or future, gwra does/will do, is used for the future tense with the verbal noun. After the relative verbal particle a it becomes wra (ra in old RLC texts), with a softened initial consonant sound. 
Me a wra moas is effectively saying It is I who/that does/will do going, in other words I will go. Just as in English, the future is a compound tense.
 The 3rd person singular preterite, gwrüg, did, can similarly be used an auxiliary for the past tense, forming the compound preterite (especially useful if you can’t remember how to mutate the proper preterite!).  After the relative verbal particle a it becomes wrüg (rig in old RLC texts), with a softened initial consonant sound. 
Me a wrüg moas is effectively saying It is I who/that did going, in other words I went or I have gone.
Just as in English, the compound verb is the form you need to know for negative statements (I am not going, I did not go, etc.)

future
compound preterite

…a wra doas
SWFM … a wra dos
…will come
…a wrüg doas
SWFM … a wrug dos
…did come (came)
…a wra moas
SWFM … a wra mos

…will go
…a wrüg moas
SWFM … a wrug mos
…did go (went)
…a wra càna
SWFM … a wra kana

…will sing
…a wrüg càna 
SWFM … a wrug kana
…did sing (sang)
…a wra clanhe
SWFM … a wra klanhe

…will clean
…a wrüg clanhe
SWFM … a wrug klanhe
…did clean (cleaned)
...a wra còsca
SWFM … a wra koska
...will sleep
...a wrüg còsca
SWFM … a wrug koska
...did sleep (slept)
…a wra gwary
SWFM … a wra gwari

…will play
…a wrüg gwary
SWFM … a wrug gwari
…did play (played)
…a wra resek

…will race
…a wrüg resek
…did race (raced)
…a wra pònya
…will run
…a wrüg pònya
…did run (ran)
…a wra desky
SWFM … a wra dyski
…will teach
…a wrüg desky
SWFM … a wrug dyski
…did teach (taught)
…a wra redya 
…will read
…a wrüg redya
…did read (read)
…a wra dewis
…will choose
…a wrüg dewis
…did choose (chose)
…a wra breujy
SWFM … a wra breusi
…will judge
…a wrüg breujy
SWFM … a wrug breusi
…did judge (judged)

We can mix any of these with suitable adverbs to make more verb phrases for sentence predicates.
a wra clanhe sür
SWFM a wra klanhe sur
will clean thoroughly
a wra dewis der vaner own
SWFM a wra dewis der vaner ewn
will choose fairly
a wrüg doas en üskis
SWFM a wrug dos yn uskis
did come (came) quickly
a wrüg moas bys dei
SWFM a wrug mos bys di
did go (went) there
And putting these with appropriate subjects we can make complete sentences.

Benyn vas a wra clanhe sür.
SWFM Benyn vas a wra klanhe sur.
An efficient woman will clean thoroughly.
An ledyer für na a wra dewis der vaner own.
SWFM An ledyer fur na a wra dewis der vaner ewn.
That wise leader will choose fairly.
An medhek a wrüg doas en üskis.
SWFM An medhek a wrug dos yn uskis.
The doctor came quickly.
Anjei a wrüg moas bys dei. SWFM I a wrug mos bys di.
They went there.

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