Friday, 22 May 2015

Learn Late Cornish Bit by Bit 81 (More About Adverbs)

A Bit More About Adverbs

We have used adjectives to describe what something is like. A simple method is used to convert those adjectives into adverbs to describe how something is done. These are adverbs of manner. (Though, in Late Cornish adjectives were often just used as adjectives without alteration.) All you do is put a little adverb particle, en[1], before the adjective, like putting –ly on the end of an adjective in English, e.g.:

lowen                                                 happy
en lowen                                           happily
üskis[2]                                             quick, fast
en üskis                                            quickly, fast

Lowen ew an kei.                            The dog is happy.
Ma’n kei o qwary en lowen.          The dog is playing happily.
Thew ev üskis. Üskis ew.             He is fast. It’s fast.
Ma va o ponya en üskis.               He runs quickly.

Notice that you are using the two different versions (descriptive and locative) of the verb boas to be.

Lowen ew an kei. Thew ev üskis.          
                                                The dog is happy. He is fast.
Ma’n kei o qwary en lowen.  Ma va o ponya en üskis.
                                                The dog is playing happily. He is running quickly.

Here are some more examples. The adverb particle en may cause a hard mutation:

da                                                       good
en ta, etta,                                         well
drog                                                   bad
en trog                                               badly
devrei[3]                                             definite, certain, etc.
en tevrei                                             definitely, certainly, indeed, etc.
dien                                                    complete, utter, etc.
en tien, ettien                                    completely, utterly, etc.
lel                                                        loyal, faithful
en lel  [4]                                             faithfully
truedhek                                             sad
en truedhek                                        sadly
truan[5]                                                unfortunate
en truan                                               sadly, unfortunately[6]
trosek                                                  noisy
en trosek                                            noisily
ûhel[7]                                                 high, loud
en ûhel                                                loudly, aloud
isel                                                      soft, low
en isel                                                 softly

Me a vedn moas avorow en tevrei.   I will definitely go tomorrow.
Hedna ew gwres en ta.                      That is well done. 
An kei a wrüg holya en lel.                The dog followed faithfully.
Nag o’vy lowen en tien.                     I am not completely happy.

It doesn’t work for all adjectives, so sometimes you have to resort to saying
in a … manner, in a … way, e.g.:

en maner(f) für                                 in a wise manner, in a wise way, wisely
en cor(m)gocky                               in a stupid manner, stupidly

Ma va o pedndroppya en maner für. He nods wisely.
Thero’whei o fara en cor gocky.       You are behaving stupidly.

Or you can resort to opposites, e.g.

heb caletter                          without difficulty, without a problem,                                                              easily

Anjei a ell gwil hebma heb caletter. They can do this easily.

[1] yn in Middle Cornish
[2] pronounced <isskiz> – üskis  is also one of the adjectives that can be used as an adverb without putting en in front of it.  
[3] pronunciation stress on final syllable
[4]  This is a useful way to end a formal letter.
[5]  umbrella graph! pronounced <treewan> in Late Cornish
[6] The idiom e’n gwettha pres (in the worst time) also means unfortunately, in parallel with e’n gwella pres (in the best time) meaning fortunately
[7]  umbrella graph again! pronounced <eew-hall> in Late Cornish. The pronunciation changed from Middle Cornish – the hamlet of Hugus near Truro (meaning “high wood”) still has the <oo> sound.

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